“I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. The hired hand, who is not the shepherd and does not own the sheep, sees the wolf coming and leaves the sheep and runs away-and the wolf snatches them and scatters them. The hired hand runs away because a hired hand does not care for the sheep. I am the good shepherd. I know my own and my own know me, just as the Father knows me and I know the Father. And I lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep that do not belong to this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd. For this reason the Father loves me, because I lay down my life in order to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it up again. I have received this command from my Father.” John 10:11-18.
This reading from John’s Gospel offers a rich passage, and those who know it well may have lost some appreciation for its texture. First, when Jesus says “I am the good shepherd”, He presents us with one of the seven “I Am” statements. These include “I am”: the bread of life; the light of the world; the gate or door; the good shepherd; the resurrection and the life; the way, the truth and the life; and the vine. Each of these statements resonates with God’s self description found in Exodus 3:14 (“I Am Who Am”). In other words, John offers us a clear claim of the divinity of Jesus through these statements.
Jesus’ description of himself as a good shepherd also resonates with God’s announcement in the Old Testament: “For thus says the Lord God: I myself will search for my sheep, and will seek them out. As shepherds seek out their flocks when they are among their scattered sheep, so I will seek out my sheep.” Ezek. 34: 11-12. From his deathbed, Jacob declared that God had been the shepherd “all of my life to this day.” Gen 48:24. Jesus’ description of himself further calls to mind the 23rd Psalm. Thus, Jesus locates himself firmly within the Davidic line: a shepherd king.
We also need to grasp just how startling Jesus’ understanding of himself as a “good shepherd” would have been to a first century audience. At that time, shepherds would have been considered am ha’aretz (people of the land or people of the dirt). Shepherds were considered dirty, coarse, boorish, and uncivilized. Rabbinic Judaism looked down on shepherds, who did not regularly keep the commandments. Because of their work, they may not have even kept the Sabbath.
The shepherds of first century Palestine were also a rough lot, solitary men of tremendous courage. They had to protect the flock from lions, bears, wolves and other predators. Rather than the gentle, pastoral image we may have inherited from the Romantic poets, shepherds were fierce fighters who were prepared for dangerous combat when necessary to protect their sheep. For example, David learned about battle by protecting his father’s sheep from predators. 1 Sam. 17:33-37.
So, there’s something in Jesus’ description of himself as “the good shepherd” that subverts our understanding and upends our expectations. Jesus also contrasts himself with “the hired hands” who run away in the face of a wolf. He thus begins to teach about his commitment to us, a commitment that disregards his own safety, that disregards his own life. This commitment, this covenant, finds its root in love, and in the Father’s love for Jesus and in Jesus’ love for the Father. Jesus teaches not only about the nature of His love for the disciples, but also about his love for every one of us. In essence, Jesus tells us: “I will not abandon you.”
Jesus then tells us that his sheep will listen to his voice. I wonder how well we do that today. Setting aside the question of listening, do we even recognize Jesus’ voice when he calls? Christ then offers a remarkable insight that speaks to our fractured Church today. He speaks of unity: “So there will be one flock, one shepherd.” When we encounter discord, schism, and fracture in the world, we can rest assured that at least one party (and perhaps all) are not listening to Jesus.
I believe this remarkable passage ultimately centers upon the overarching Christian commandment: love God and love each other. As Desmond Tutu once observed, “Nothing is too much trouble for love.” Love binds the sheep to the shepherd, and binds the shepherd to his flock. We understand the risks inherent in the practice of love, risks that will ultimately lead to Golgotha. Despite these risks, in the final analysis, the Gospel teaches us that nothing else really matters.
God watch over thee and me,
James R. Dennis, O.P.
© 2012 James R. Dennis
A wonderful reading and as always, I completely found inspiration and joy in your own commentary. Thank you! Linda
Thank you for your constant support and encouragement. You’re very kind.
God’s great peace
Thank you for this gift so that we can remember Jesus is of the people. Years ago, I used to think of Jesus as this entity, floating around with a halo of light. The Gospels describe a man so powerful that he did not need to show that power. That is a lesson in itself for us.
Your description today of the shepherd, dirty and looked down upon, strengthens my faith in Christ Jesus. His humility is palpable particularly since you provided a historical context.
I think you’re right. This passage is deeply incarnational. At times, I think we all focus on Jesus’ divinity at the expense of his humanity.
I appreciate your support, and your friendship.
Wow, this is really beautiful. Helps to see Jesus in a new light. Thank you!!
I’m very glad the piece spoke to you. You are most welcome.
I often think about the passages from Ezekiel and the false shepherds that actually eat their sheep, contrasted with Christ who laid down his life for the sheep. (We have so many hireling shepherds today.)
I also love the part about Christ’s sheep knowing his voice and not hearing the voice of a stranger. What a wonderful Savior we have, who addresses all of our infirmities and dangers, and loves each of us so much, even those who are in “other folds.”
Your writing is a blessing and encouragement.
It’s amazing how often the metaphor of the shepherd comes up throughout Scripture, and particularly the Old Testament. I think learning to recognize the voice of our shepherd is a challenging taks.
Your support means a great deal to me.
Peace be with you,
Brother, I believe you are right. We do tend to forget Jesus’ humanity. I appreciate the image you provided of a strong, rough solitary man who will fight to keep us in the fold. Thanks.
You are most welcome. I thinking knowing that we enjoy the protection of the Incarnate Lord ought comfort us when we come to the conclusion that we are insufficient to do the tasks at hand.
Grace and peace,
Br. James, Another thought and heart growing teaching today. The reminder that Jesus tells us, “I will not abandon you.” Why, knowing this truth, do I not always hunger to be in His presence? As He tells us, “I am the good shepherd,” why do I not always strain to hear his voice, and instead allow myself to be distracted?
As I read your message today, this thorn in my flesh is very present. I hold onto our Lord’s promise that His grace is sufficient, and pray that I will one day be a more faithful follower.
I share your astonishment, and the question (“Why do I do this?”) challenges us all. I know God will work with us in His way and in His time. Thank you for being so regular in reading and so graceful in your comments.
Pax et bonum,
Greetings brother James. I love the comparison you give between Exekiel 34 and John 10. Its amazing. David’s shepherd is your shepherd and my shepherd..His God our God!.
Thank you for sharing.
I’m so glad you liked the piece. Listening for the voice of our shepherd remains my challenge, but you’re most welcome.
God’s great peace,
Dear Br J, it does not matter how busy I am, reading your commentaries are worth every single moment of my time. The last paragraph on love particularly resonates, where you say nothing is too much for love. This is especially true when we let go the ego.
Re the image of the shepherd with sheep around his neck – this comes from the story of Hermes Kriophorous, in Greece, who walked around the city walls with a sheep around his neck to save the inhabitants from a deadly plague. I think there was an even earlier one with a bull around the neck of another chap. The symbology was adopted by the early Roman Christian church and became synonymous with the Christ the Good Shepherd iconography.
Thanks so much for this. I certainly did not know the history of the iconography. Looking at them though, I tend to favor those that show a rougher Jesus over those that have been cleaned up to show some idealized notion of the Savior.
You are always so kind to offer your thoughts. Many thanks,
Rough sits well with me, too. We have the Renaissance artists to thank for the Adonis-like renditions of Christ. Here is my view of Him
It’s simply wonderful!
Brother James, thank you very much for a lovely meditation. Reading it I felt the Spirit caress my soul. You are a great blessing.
You are very kind. You’ll make a Dominican blush if you’re not careful. Many thanks, my friend.
God watch over your going out and your coming home,
I never hear too often that Christ is the shepherd who wont leave me. thanks for the reminder. Marjorie George
I think we all need to hear that. Often, and loudly.